Genetic Genealogy of the Milam / Mileham / Milum Surname

The Origin of Surnames in England

Before the Norman Conquest of Britain, people did not have hereditary surnames: they were known just by a personal name or nickname. After 1066 AD, the Norman barons introduced surnames into England and the practice gradually spread. Initially, the identifying names were changed or dropped at will but eventually they began to stick and to get passed on, so trades, nicknames, places of origin, and fathers' names became fixed surnames. By 1400 most English families and those of Lowland Scotland had adopted the use of hereditary surnames.

Surnames deriving from a place are probably the oldest and most common. They can be derived from numerous sources - county, town or estate - or from features in the landscape - hill, wood or meadow. Many of these names and their derivation are obvious, others less so. The names Pickering, Bedford, Berkley and Hampshire might have been the names of estates on which the individuals worked and lived. If a person migrated elsewhere, their former place name would be convenient way to distinguish them from others with the same first name.

The oldest known record of a MILAM in England is from County of Norfolk: the 1375 AD Will of George de Mileham. The translation of de from French is of in English. So George de Mileham literally meant George of Mileham - which indeed was, and is, a village in Norfolk County. The estate named Mileham - a name of Anglo-Saxon origin - was awarded to Lord Fitzalan, a Norman, by King William after the Conquest. [xxx]

The origin of surnames may explain why Englishmen with a MILAM surname are of different genetic ancestories i.e. not one single genetic family but rather different genetic families perhaps living in, or around, the village of Mileham adopting its name. Some of these were of Germanic (Celtic or Anglo-Saxon) origin, others of Scandinavian (Viking) origin and perhaps others of Norman or even Roman origin. Each of those ethnic groups represent foreign invasions which displaced the predominate Bretons to the west and north since the invasions occured by sea along the east and southeast coasts. Mileham and the County of Norfolk are situated on the east coast and experienced all those invasions. In early 2018 between the United Kingdom and the United States, we know of eight genetically different MILAM families.


Basic Concepts in Genetic Genealogy

Like all surnames, the MILAM surname was passed on from father to son, father to son over centuries like the male Y chromosome. The human genome has 23 pairs of chromosomes, one half contributed by the mother's egg (ova) and one half contributed by the father's sperm. Since the mother has two X chromosomes, she always contributes an X. Since the father has an X and a Y chromosome, he may contribute either which determines a child's sex. Since only males have the Y-chromosome, only men and their Y-DNA test results can be utilized in genealogical surname research.

To make things more complicated, during the development of a sperm or an ova each member of a chromosome pair swaps genetic segments (re-combines) with the other including to a limited extent the X and Y chromosomes. This process occurs in the first phase of meiosis. Fortunately, there is a large portion of the Y chromosome which never recombines - the non-recombining portion - and this is the part which is analyzed in genetic Y-DNA testing. The chromosomes from the nucleus of a dividing human cell look like this:

23 Pairs of Human Chromosomes Whose Pairs Exchange DNA Segments during Meiosis.
Image of 23 chromosomes

Y-DNA Testing for Genealogy

Chromosomes are not visible in a cell’s nucleus except when the cell is dividing. Each chromosome is made up of DNA strands tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. Nucleotides are the so-called "alphabet" of DNA and there are only four "letters" in the DNA alphabet which refers to their 4 nitrogen bases. These bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). A always pairs with T, while G always pairs with C. These linkages are termed base pairs.

The double helix strands of DNA with the base pairs A-T and G-C linking them.
Illustration of Strand of DNA

Although a large portion of the Y chromosome is non-recombining and is transmited virtually unchanged from father to son, father to son, occasionally mistakes in the copying process occur which are called variants or mutations. Each mutation that occurs in a new individual is inherited by all his descendants. This is why all men descending from the same male ancestor share the same series of mutations inherited from all of their accumulated paternal ancestors for thousands of years (patrilineal inheritance). Men with the same set of inherited mutations can therefore be classified in the same family which population geneticists call a Haplogroup. Such mutations are referred to as a  Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP - pronounced snip). More than 55,000 SNP's have been identified which can differentiate the various paternal lineages in the world. These mutations are sometimes referred to as "markers" and can be used to classify individuals into one of the 20 Y-DNA haplogroups. By testing for these variants, it is possible to trace one's genealogy.

Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Tests

All chromosomes contain sequences of repeating nucleotides known as Short Tandem Repeats (STR). The STR segments occur in what is considered to be non-coding DNA or "junk" DNA - an area with no instructions for producing anything. STR regions on the Y chromosome are designated by a DYS number and are often referred to as a genetic marker. For example, DYS522 has repeats of the nucleotide sequence G-A-T-A which may be repeated 8 to 17 times. The number of repetitions at a specific DYS region varies from one person to another; and the number of repetitions provides the value for that DYS marker. Here is what DYS522 results might look like for four different men:

The value for the marker DYS522 sequence G-A-T-A varies from 8 to 10 in these men.
Short Tandem Repeat Results for Four Persons

Genealogical STR testing involves analyzing the STR segments on the Y chromosome which are referred to as Y-DNA tests. Family Tree DNA offers Y-DNA tests for 37, 67 and 111 markers named YDNA-37, YDNA-67 and YDNA-111.

Below are the results for 4 men who took a hypothetical YDNA-19 test. The first marker DYS393 repeats the nucleotides A-G-A-T. All persons in this example have a value of 13 for DYS393. If we look at the second marker DYS390, one person has a value of 23 and the others have a value of 24. In this table of results, values below the mode (the most frequent result) are in a blue box; values above the mode are in a pink box. The value 23 for DYS390 is in a blue box since the mode is 24. Similarly for DYS449 at the far right, the mode is 28 and the result of 27 is in a blue box. For DYS439 the mode is 12 therefore the values of 11 are in blue boxs.

STR results for 4 persons with the DYS region labled at the top of each column.
YDNA-37 Probability

STRs results can provide a prediction of an individual's haplogroup although his true haplogroup can only be confirmed by testing for that haplogroup's specific inherited mutations, SNPs, acquired over millennia by his patrilineal line.

STR results also predict how closely two men are related. For example, if the results of a 37 marker YDNA-37 test are identical (genetic distance of 0), then there is a 50% probability that the two men's common ancestor lived no longer than two generations ago and a 90% probability that the ancestor lived no longer than five generations ago. If their results differ by one (genetic distance of 1), then there is a 50% probability that the two men's common ancestor lived no longer than four generations ago as shown in this table.

YDNA-37 Probability

STR tests are the oldest type of DNA test and have been used for paternity, forensic and criminal investigations for several decades.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Tests

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a mutation (variant) in a single nucleotide base pair of a DNA strand as illustrated below.

The purple colored nucleotide was replaced by a yellow nucleotide in the mutant copy of DNA.
Illustration of a SNP - mutation

SNP mutations are very stable which makes them ideal for marking the history of the human genetic tree. SNPs are named with a letter code and a number. The letters indicate the laboratory that discovered the SNP and the number indicates the order in which it was discovered. For example, BY100 is the 100th SNP documented by Big Y testing at Family Tree DNA which uses the code letters BY for its lab.

As mentioned above, STR test results provide a predicted haplogroup. But a panel of SNP test results are required to confirm a haplogroup. SNP testing also enables researchers and enthusiasts to learn more about their deep ancestry going back thousands of years. The success of ancient DNA SNP testing of hundreds of skeletons from ancient, pre-historic cultures has revolutionized our understanding of the movement of ancient peoples into Europe and, for that matter, into North and South America as well as into Indonesia and Australia.

Genetic Genealogy of American Milams

Thirty-nine of the fourty-one Americans thus far tested belong to the same haplogroup and are all descendants of John and Thomas Milam who lived in the Piedmont region of the Colony of Virginia in the early 1700s. On short tandem repeat (STR) testing their results are always predicted haplogroup R-M269. Haplogroup R is one of the 20 major haplogroups of mankind; its branch R1b accounts for ~ 95% of present day west European men. M269 is a dependable ancient SNP which defines most living R1b men.

On the first panel of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) tests, the M269 "Backbone" SNP Pack of 137 SNP markers, the result for these Milams is SNP Z367. When one tests the advanced SNP panel, the Z367 SNP Pack of 122 additional markers, their terminal SNP is CTS9733. Imagine an inverted tree with branches descending downward: each SNP panel tests markers further down the branching tree. When one tests down to the furthest known branch of the tree, it is referred to as the terminal SNP of a person's patrilineal line. This result is represented as: R-CTS9733 - indicating the major haplogroup R and the SNP CTS9733. Noting only the SNP mutations which define the major John and Thomas Milam branches on the R tree, their Milam branch can be summarized like this:


Their branch can be better visualized on the tree below. (Please click on the chart to see a larger version.) The blue line connects the SNP mutations which were accumulated by their Milam paternal ancestors over thousands of years which define their Milam line. Other Milam / Mileham / Milum families lie on other branches of haplogroup R and also on branches of the haplogroups E, I and J. In early 2018 - between the United Kingdom and the United States - we know of eight genetically distinct MILAM families.

Yes, mutations accumulated over many thousands of years. Here is a list of some of these SNPs and the estimated time the mutation occured:

Other research groups have slightly different calculated values based upon different assumptions.
Table: Age of SNPs


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